# Number Theory

## The eighth moment of $\Gamma_1(q)$ L-functions

In this talk, I will discuss my on-going joint work with Xiannan Li on an unconditional asymptotic formula for the eighth moment of $\Gamma_1(q)$ L-functions, which are associated with eigenforms for the congruence subgroups $\Gamma_1(q)$. Similar to a large family of Dirichlet L-functions, the family of $\Gamma_1(q)$ L-functions has a size around $q^2$ while the conductor is of size $q$. An asymptotic large sieve of the family is available by the work of Iwaniec and Xiaoqing Li, and they observed that this family of harmonics is not perfectly orthogonal. This introduces certain subtleties in our work.

## Twisted moments of characteristic polynomials of random matrices

In the late 90's, Keating and Snaith used random matrix theory to predict the exact leading terms of conjectural asymptotic formulas for all integral moments of the Riemann zeta-function. Prior to their work, no number-theoretic argument or heuristic has led to such exact predictions for all integral moments. In 2015, Conrey and Keating revisited the approach of using divisor sum heuristics to predict asymptotic formulas for moments of zeta. Essentially, their method estimates moments of zeta using lower twisted moments. In this talk, I will discuss a rigorous random matrix theory analogue of the Conrey-Keating heuristic. This is ongoing joint work with Brian Conrey.

## A survey of Büthe's method for estimating prime counting functions

This talk will begin with a study on explicit bounds for $\psi(x)$ starting with the work of Rosser in 1941. It will also cover various improvements over the years including the works of Rosser and Schoenfeld, Dusart, Faber-Kadiri, Platt-Trudgian, Büthe, and Fiori-Kadiri-Swidinsky. In the second part of this talk, I will provide an overview of my master's thesis which is a survey on 'Estimating $\pi(x)$ and Related Functions under Partial RH Assumptions' by Jan Büthe. This article provides the best known bounds for $\psi(x)$ for small values of $x$ in the interval $[e^{50},e^{3000}]$. A distinctive feature of this paper is the use of Logan's function and its Fourier Transform. I will be presenting the main theorem in Büthe's paper regarding estimates for $\psi(x)$ with other necessary results required to understand the proof.

## Some Pólya Fields of Small Degrees

Historically, the notion of Pólya fields dates back to some works of George Pólya and Alexander Ostrowski, in 1919, on entire functions with integer values at integers; a number field $K$ with ring of integers $\mathcal{O}_K$ is called a Pólya field whenever the $\mathcal{O}_K$-module $\{f \in K[X] \, : \, f(\mathcal{O}_K) \subseteq \mathcal{O}_K \}$ admits an $\mathcal{O}_K$-basis with exactly one member from each degree. Pólya fields can be thought of as a generalization of number fields with class number one, and their classification of a specific degree has become recently an active research subject in algebraic number theory. In this talk, I will present some criteria for $K$ to be a Pólya field. Then I will give some results concerning Pólya fields of degrees $2$, $3$, and $6$.

## Characteristic polynomials, the Hybrid model, and the Ratios Conjecture

In the 1960s Shanks conjectured that the $\zeta\'(\rho)$, where $\rho$ is a non-trivial zero of zeta, is both real and positive in the mean. Conjecturing and proving this result has a rich history, but efforts to generalise it to higher moments have so far failed. Building on the work of Keating and Snaith using characteristic polynomials from Random Matrix Theory, the Hybrid model of Gonek, Hughes and Keating, and the Ratios Conjecture of Conrey, Farmer, and Zirnbauer, we have been able to produce new conjectures for the full asymptotics of higher moments of the derivatives of zeta. This is joint work with Chris Hughes.

## Statistics of the Mulitiplicative Groups

For every positive integer n, the quotient ring Z/nZ is the natural ring whose additive group is cyclic. The "multiplicative group modulo n" is the group of invertible elements of this ring, with the multiplication operation. As it turns out, many quantities of interest to number theorists can be interpreted as "statistics" of these multiplicative groups. For example, the cardinality of the multiplicative group modulo n is simply the Euler phi function of n; also, the number of terms in the invariant factor composition of this group is closely related to the number of primes dividing n. Many of these statistics have known distributions when the integer n is chosen at random (the Euler phi function has a singular cumulative distribution, while the Erdös–Kac theorem tells us that the number of prime divisors follows an asymptotically normal distribution). Therefore this family of groups provides a convenient excuse for examining several famous number theory results and open problems. We shall describe how we know, given the factorization of n, the exact structure of the multiplicative group modulo n, and go on to outline the connections to these classical statistical problems in multiplicative number theory.

## Easy detection of (Di)Graphical Regular Representations

Graphical and Digraphical Regular Representations (GRRs and DRRs) are a concrete way to visualise the regular action of a group, using graphs. More precisely, a GRR or DRR on the group G is a (di)graph whose automorphism group is isomorphic to the regular action of G on itself by right-multiplication.

For a (di)graph to be a DRR or GRR on G, it must be a Cayley (di)graph on G. Whenever the group G admits an automorphism that fixes the connection set of the Cayley (di)graph setwise, this induces a nontrivial graph automorphism that fixes the identity vertex, which means that the (di)graph is not a DRR or GRR. Checking whether or not there is any group automorphism that fixes a particular connection set can be done very quickly and easily compared with checking whether or not any nontrivial graph automorphism fixes some vertex, so it would be nice to know if there are circumstances under which the simpler test is enough to guarantee whether or not the Cayley graph is a GRR or DRR. I will present a number of results on this question.

This is based on joint work with Dave Morris and with Gabriel Verret.

## On the Hardy Littlewood 3-tuple prime conjecture and convolutions of Ramanujan sums

The Hardy and Littlewood k-tuple prime conjecture is one of the most enduring unsolved problems in mathematics. In 1999, Gadiyar and Padma presented a heuristic derivation of the 2-tuples conjecture by employing the orthogonality principle of Ramanujan sums. Building upon their work, we explore triple convolution Ramanujan sums and use this approach to provide a heuristic derivation of the Hardy-Littlewood conjecture concerning prime 3-tuples. Furthermore, we estimate the triple convolution of the Jordan totient function using Ramanujan sums.

## On sums of coefficients of polynomials related to the Borwein conjectures

Peter Borewein empirically discovered quite a number of mysteries involving sign patterns of coefficients of polynomials of the form $f_{p,s,n}(q):=\prod_{j=0}^{n} \prod_{k=1}^{p-1} (1-q^{pj+k})^{s}$ ($p$ a prime and $s,n \in \mathbb{N}$). In the case $(p,s) \in \{(3,1), (3,2)\}$, he conjectured that the coefficients follow a repeating + - - pattern, and in the case $(p,s)=(5,1)$, it was conjectured that the coefficients follow a repeating + - - - - sign pattern. We consider a weaker problem of finding the signs of partial sums of coefficients along some arithmetic progressions. We use a combinatorial sieving principle by Li-Wan and elementary character theory to asymptotically estimate and find the signs of these partial sums. We find that the signs of these partial sums are compatible with the sign pattern in Borewein's conjectures. This is based on joint work with Ankush Goswami.

## On some explicit results for the sum of unitary divisor function

Let $\sigma^*(n)$ be the sum of all unitary (i.e. coprime) divisors of $n$. As an analogue of Lehmer’s totient problem, Subbarao proposed the following conjecture. The congruence $\sigma^*(n)\equiv 1\pmod{n}$ is possible iff $n$ is a prime power. This problem is still open. We strengthen considerably the lower estimations for the potential counterexamples to Subbarao’s conjecture.

In the second part of our talk, we discuss the growth of the function $\sigma^*(n)$. We establish a new explicit upper bound, namely $\sigma^*(n)<1.2678n\log\log{n}$ for all $n\ge223092870$. For this purpose, we use explicit estimates for Chebyshev’s $\theta$-function and for some product defined over prime numbers.