# Scientific

## Gromov-Wasserstein Alignment: Statistical and Computational Advancements via Duality

The Gromov-Wasserstein (GW) distance quantifies dissimilarity between metric measure (mm) spaces and provides a natural alignment between them. As such, it serves as a figure of merit for applications involving alignment of heterogeneous datasets, including object matching, single-cell genomics, and matching language models. While various heuristic methods for approximately evaluating the GW distance from data have been developed, formal guarantees for such approaches—both statistical and computational—remained elusive. This work closes these gaps for the quadratic GW distance between Euclidean mm spaces of different dimensions. At the core of our proofs is a novel dual representation of the GW problem as an infimum of certain optimal transportation problems. The dual form enables deriving, for the first time, sharp empirical convergence rates for the GW distance by providing matching upper and lower bounds. For computational tractability, we consider the entropically regularized GW distance. We derive bounds on the entropic approximation gap, establish sufficient conditions for convexity of the objective, and devise efficient algorithms with global convergence guarantees. These advancements facilitate principled estimation and inference methods for GW alignment problems, that are efficiently computable via the said algorithms.

## A discrete mean value of the Riemann zeta function and its derivatives

In this talk, we will discuss an estimate for a discrete mean value of the Riemann zeta function and its derivatives multiplied by Dirichlet polynomials. Assuming the Riemann Hypothesis, we obtain a lower bound for the 2kth moment of all the derivatives of the Riemann zeta function evaluated at its nontrivial zeros. This is based on a joint work with Kübra Benli and Nathan Ng.

## Projective Planes and Hadamard Matrices

It is conjectured that there is no projective plane of order 12. Balanced splittable Hadamard matrices were introduced in 2018. In 2023, it was shown that a projective plane of order 12 is equivalent to a balanced multi-splittable Hadamard matrix of order 144. There will be an attempt to show the equivalence in a way that may require little background.

## Fourier optimization and the least quadratic non-residue

We will explore how a Fourier optimization framework may be used to study two classical problems in number theory involving Dirichlet characters: The problem of estimating the least character non-residue; and the problem of estimating the least prime in an arithmetic progression. In particular, we show how this Fourier framework leads to subtle, but conceptually interesting, improvements on the best current asymptotic bounds under the Generalized Riemann Hypothesis, given by Lamzouri, Li, and Soundararajan. Based on joint work with Emanuel Carneiro, Micah Milinovich, and Antonio Ramos.

## Sums of proper divisors with missing digits

Let $s(n)$ denote the sum of proper divisors of a positive integer $n$. In 1992, Erdös, Granville, Pomerance, and Spiro conjectured that if \(\square\) is a set of integers with asymptotic density zero then the preimage set \(s^{−1}(\square)\) also has asymptotic density zero. In this talk, we will discuss the verification of this conjecture when \(\square\) is the set of integers with missing digits (also known as ellipsephic integers) by giving a quantitative estimate on the size of the set \(s^{-1}(\square)\). This talk is based on the joint work with Giulia Cesana, C\'{e}cile Dartyge, Charlotte Dombrowsky and Lola Thompson.

## Mean values of long Dirichlet polynomials

We discuss the role of long Dirichlet polynomials in number theory. We first survey some applications of mean values of long Dirichlet polynomials over primes in the theory of the Riemann zeta function which includes central limit theorems and pair correlation of zeros. We then give some examples showing how, on assuming the Riemann Hypothesis, one can compute asymptotics for such mean values without using the Hardy-Littlewood conjectures for additive correlations of the von-Mangoldt functions.

## Equidistribution of some families of short exponential sums

Exponential sums play a role in many different problems in number theory. For instance, Gauss sums are at the heart of some early proofs of the quadratic reciprocity law, while Kloosterman sums are involved in the study of modular and automorphic forms. Another example of application of exponential sums is the circle method, an analytic approach to problems involving the enumeration of integer solutions to certain equations. In many cases, obtaining upper bounds on the modulus of these sums allow us to draw conclusions, but once the modulus has been bounded, it is natural to ask the question of the distribution of exponential sums in the region of the complex plane in which they live. After a brief overview of the motivations mentioned above, I will present some results obtained with Emmanuel Kowalski on the equidistribution of exponential sums indexed by the roots modulo p of a polynomial with integer coefficients.

## Explicit bounds for $\zeta$ and a new zero free region

In this talk, we prove that |ζ(σ+it)|≤ 70.7 |t|4.438(1-σ)^{3/2} log2/3|t| for 1/2≤ σ ≤ 1 and |t| ≥ 3, combining new explicit bounds for the Vinogradov integral with exponential sum estimates. As a consequence, we improve the explicit zero-free region for ζ(s), showing that ζ(σ+it) has no zeros in the region σ ≥ 1-1/(53.989 (log|t|)2/3(log log|t|)1/3) for |t| ≥ 3.

## Examples of well-behaved Beurling number systems

A Beurling number system consists a non-decreasing unbounded sequence of reals larger than 1, which are called generalized primes, and the sequence of all possible products of these generalized primes, which are called generalized integers. With both sequences one associates counting functions. Of particular interest is the case when both counting functions are close to their classical counter parts: namely when the prime-counting function is close to Li(x), and when the integer-counting function is close to ax for some positive constant a.

A Beurling number systems is well-behaved if it admits a power saving in the error terms for both these counting functions. In this talk, I will discuss some general theory of these well-behaved systems, and present some recent work about examples of such well-behaved number systems. This talk is based on joint work with Gregory Debruyne and Szilárd Révész.

## Local to global principle for higher moments of the natural density

In this talk I will explain how to obtain a local to global principle for expected values over free ℤ-modules of finite rank. We use the same philosophy as Ekedhal’s Sieve for densities, later extended and improved by Poonen and Stoll in their local to global principle for densities. This strategy can also be extended to higher moments and to holomorphy rings of any global function field.

These results were obtained in collaboration with A. Hsiao, J. Ma, G. Micheli, S. Tinani, V. Weger, Y.Q. Wen.